A genetic risk score of alleles related to MGUS interacts with socioeconomic position in a population-based cohort

Environmental, genetic, and social factors are suggested to jointly influence monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), a precursor of multiple myeloma. Aim of this study was to investigate interactions between MGUS-related genetic variants and socioeconomic position (SEP) indicators education and income on MGUS in a population-based study. Two different MGUS-related genetic risk allele sum scores (GRS) were calculated based on recent genome-wide meta-analyses. Odds Ratios (OR) were estimated in 4329 participants including 238 MGUS cases to assess associations and multiplicative interaction. The relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) was calculated to assess additive interaction. Both GRSs were associated with MGUS. A multiplicative interaction between one GRS and education was observed with genetic effects of OR 1.34 (95% CI 1.11–1.62) per risk allele in the highest and OR 1.06 (95% CI 0.86–1.31) in the lowest education group. A RERI of 0.10 (95% CI 0.05–0.14) also indicated additive interaction. Further, additive GRS by income interaction (RERI 0.07; 95% CI 0.01–0.13) for the same GRS was also indicated. Results indicate interaction between MGUS-related genetic risk and SEP. Non-genetic MGUS risk factors more common in higher education groups may influence the expression of MGUS-related genetic variants.


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