The steady behavior of the supercritical carbon dioxide natural circulation loop
The steady state behavior of thermodynamically supercritical natural circulation loops (NCLs) is investigated in this work. Experimental steady state results with supercritical carbon dioxide are presented for reduced pressures in the range of 1.1-1.5, and temperatures in the range of 20-65 ◦C. Distinct thermodynamic states are reached by traversing a set of isochors. A generalized equation for the prediction of the steady state is presented, and its performance is assessed using empirical data. Changes of mass flow rate as a result of changes of thermodynamic state, heatingand driving height are shown to be accurately captured by the proposed predictive equation. However, the enhanced viscous losses in the instrumentation of the loop and in the proximity of heat transfer equipment are shown to significantly limit the steady state flow rate. Subsequently, the findings are put forward in aid of the development of safe, novel supercritical natural circulation facilities.
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