Abbildung von Mobilität durch realitätsnahe Testzyklen : Grundlagen, Ergebnisse und Potenziale
Mobilität ist ein wesentlicher Bestandteil unserer Gesellschaft, aber auch gleichzeitig Ursache für die Produktion von Treibhausgasemissionen und Luftschadstoffen. Für eine realistische Einschätzung des mit der Mobilität einhergehenden Kraftstoff- beziehungsweise Energiebedarfs und damit verbundenen Emissionsausstoßes werden realitätsnahe Testverfahren benötigt. Eine Möglichkeit stellen Testzyklen dar, die die Mobilität abbilden.
Mobility is an essential part of our society. However, it is undergoing a transformation to a more climatefriendly form. An important part of this is being achieved through the complete electrification of vehicles. The consumption and thus the emissions of electric vehicles depend on a number of different factors, such as driving behaviour or temperature, which are influenced by the individual driving style but also by traffic and the use of auxiliary units. However, these characteristics specific to electric vehicles are not adequately covered by standardized driving cycles, which have long been criticized for not being realistic. Current efforts consider parameters under real operating conditions. In addition to measurements of emissions on test benches, tests and measurements are carried out under real operating conditions. In this so-called RDE test, the emission of NOx and particulate matter is measured by portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) during driving. In future, the fuel consumption and energy requirements of new passenger cars and light commercial vehicles will also be recorded during real-world operation and transmitted to the European Commission. This will enable estimates to be made of fleet-wide fuel and energy requirements and fuel-related emissions. Another measure aimed at reducing the difference between the parameters determined by standardized test cycles and the real parameters is the development of application-specific test cycles. These are constructed based on real data covering the specific application. Furthermore, real environmental conditions as well as the user-specific use of additional consumers such as auxiliary units can be mapped. This makes it possible to create an alternative to standardized test cycles that allows parameters to be determined that are closer to reality. Based on comprehensive real driving data from Germany and China, which were recorded over a long period of time by UDE’s Chair of Mechatronics with various partners from industry and research, a series of driving cycles was developed. Transient driving cycles were generated region-specifically on the basis of important influencing parameters. In addition to speed cycles, battery load cycles were developed using recorded current profiles and, for a higher level of detail, current profiles were generated by simulation. It was clearly shown that driving cycles for electric vehicles based on real driving data differ significantly from standardized driving cycles. The necessity of analysing the influencing factors of the region to be mapped in a cycle also became clear.