Umweltfreundlcher Mobilitätsantrieb? : Batterien und Brennstoffzellen als Energieversorgung für die Elektromobilität

Die Antriebe für die Mobilität der Zukunft basieren auf Batterien und Brennstoffzellen, die die meisten Ansprüche an Reichweite und Nutzlast erfüllen können. Forschung und Entwicklung zur Verbesserung von Batterien adressieren zum Beispiel die Energiedichte und Umweltfreundlichkeit, auch Batterietypen der nächsten Generation und die Weiterentwicklung von Brennstoffzellen in Hinblick auf Produktionstechnik und Kostenreduktion sind zentrale Themen.

Both battery electric vehicles (BEV) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) contribute to zero-emission driving. Both technologies have distinct advantages, meaning that they are used with different applications. Highly efficient BEV have already been introduced into the market in significant numbers, while fuel cell drives are mainly produced in Asian countries. For heavy duty applications, fuel cells and hydrogen – or even more energy dense hydrogen carriers like ammonia – are considered as options. Research and development into improving Li-ion batteries is of utmost importance, but the development of secondgeneration batteries like Li-sulfur or zinc-based systems is also carried out. The results of these long-term programmes will show the potential of these technologies for possible applications, electric traction or stationary energy storage. Fuel cells have not yet achieved a comparable state of development. Series production has been realised, but mass production and broad market introduction will take some more years of development. High performance membrane-electrode assemblies are the core of fuel cells, but research and development are also required for production technologies, lifetime and cost reduction. Both BEV and FCEV technologies require their own refuelling infrastructure. Electric charging either takes time or needs high power, for example 50 kW or higher to charge a passenger car within one to two hours. Hydrogen is stored under a pressure of 700 bars in pressure vessels in order to achieve a high energy density and a high driving range. Refuelling technology is thus consuming energy depending on the refuelling time and the refuelling station design. Applied research for technological improvement is therefore important. Both infrastructures are also massively subsidized to make electric driving attractive for consumers. For ocean shipping or aviation, hydrogen might not have the sufficient energy density, not even in liquefied form. In this case, ammonia might be an option as a hydrogencarrying material. The release of hydrogen by cracking, the development of compact ammonia crackers and innovative routes for ammonia synthesis are interesting research fields.

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