Dynamic Simulation and Experimental Validation of a 35 MW Heat Pump Based on a Transcritical CO2 Cycle
Replacing the baseload providers on the energy market with decarbonized renewable solutions increases frequency dynamics on the grid. In order to handle the concomitant risks and chances linked with this change of paradigm between energy producers and consumers, complex dynamic models are required to optimize energy management strategies. Industrial transcritical carbon dioxide (CO2) heat pumps, such as the one developed by MAN Energy Solutions Schweiz AG (MAN ES), offer a proven solution for the decarbonization of the district heating sector. Furthermore, they are associated with pathways to increase the usage of this solution for sector coupling applications. This work presents a detailed Modelica model of the high-temperature CO2 heat pump, focusing on the thermodynamic states of the refrigerant during load variations of the system. In a consecutive step, the model is validated against testbed data of a heat pump from MAN ES with over 35 MW heat supply and a lift from 40 to 100 K. The model results match the testbed data with an accuracy of over 95 % and demonstrate a full coverage of the performance map minimum to maximum speed, providing water-side supply temperatures of 50 to 109 °C. Realistic dynamics in fast load balancing operation are demonstrated where power consumption was varied by 80 % compared to maximum power within 30 s. Models of this kind are essential for an accurate prediction how decarbonized energy networks react by linking electricity and heat supply together. These predictions are ultimately useful to upgrade or optimize complex control strategies.
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