Utility of Integrated PET/MRI for the Primary Diagnostic Work-Up of Patients with Ewing Sarcoma : Preliminary Results

Background: This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical applicability of integrated PET/MRI for staging and monitoring the effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in Ewing sarcoma patients.

Methods: A total of 11 juvenile patients with confirmed Ewing sarcoma, scheduled for induction polychemotherapy, were prospectively enrolled for a PET/MR examination before, during and after the end of treatment. Two experienced physicians analysed the imaging datasets. They were asked to perform a whole-body staging in all three examinations and to define treatment response according to the RECIST1.1 and PERCIST criteria for each patient.

Results: In eight patients lymph node and/or distant metastases were detected at initial diagnosis. According to the reference standard, three patients achieved complete response, six patients partial response, and one patient showed stable disease while another patient showed progressive disease. RECIST1.1 categorized the response to treatment in 5/11 patients correctly and showed a tendency to underestimate the response to treatment in the remaining six patients. PERCIST defined response to treatment in 9/11 patients correctly and misclassified two patients with a PR as CR.

Conclusion: PET/MRI may serve as a valuable imaging tool for primary staging and response assessment of juvenile patients with Ewing sarcoma to induction chemotherapy, accompanied by a reasonable radiation dose for the patient.


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