Deep Reinforcement Learning Multi-Agent System for Resource Allocation in Industrial Internet of Things
The high number of devices with limited computational resources as well as limited communication resources are two characteristics of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). With Industry 4.0 emerges a strong demand for data processing in the edge, constrained primarily by the limited available resources. In industry, deep reinforcement learning (DRL) is increasingly used in robotics, job shop scheduling and supply chain. In this work, DRL is applied for intelligent resource allocation for industrial edge devices. An optimal usage of available resources of the IIoT devices should be achieved. Due to the structure of IIoT systems as well as security aspects, multi-agent systems (MASs) are preferred for decentralized decision-making. In our study, we build a network from physical and virtualized representative IIoT devices. The proposed approach is capable of dealing with several dynamic changes of the target system. Three aspects are considered when evaluating the performance of the MASs: overhead due to the MASs, improvement of the resource usage of the devices as well as latency and error rate. In summary, the agents' resource usage with respect to traffic, computing resources and time is very low. It was confirmed that the agents not only achieve the desired results in training but also that the learned behavior is transferable to a real system.