Platelet-Therapeutics to Improve Tissue Regeneration and Wound Healing : Physiological Background and Methods of Preparation
Besides their function in primary hemostasis, platelets are critically involved in the physiological steps leading to wound healing and tissue repair. For this purpose, platelets have a complex set of receptors allowing the recognition, binding, and manipulation of extracellular structures and the detection of pathogens and tissue damage. Intracellular vesicles contain a huge set of mediators that can be released to the extracellular space to coordinate the action of platelets as other cell types for tissue repair. Therapeutically, the most frequent use of platelets is the intravenous application of platelet concentrates in case of thrombocytopenia or thrombocytopathy. However, there is increasing evidence that the local application of platelet-rich concentrates and platelet-rich fibrin can improve wound healing and tissue repair in various settings in medicine and dentistry. For the therapeutic use of platelets in wound healing, several preparations are available in clinical practice. In the present study we discuss the physiology and the cellular mechanisms of platelets in hemostasis and wound repair, the methods used for the preparation of platelet-rich concentrates and platelet-rich fibrin, and highlight some examples of the therapeutic use in medicine and dentistry.
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