Steigerung der Energiedichte : Nanomaterialien für Hochleistungs-Batterien
Die Energiedichte von Batterien zu steigern, um möglichst viel Energie pro Volumen und Batteriegewicht transportieren zu können, steht im Zentrum der Entwicklungsaufgaben für die Elektromobilität. Die Autorin und die Autoren arbeiten am Center for Nanointegration, CeNIDE innerhalb des NanoEnergieTechnikZentrums, NETZ an der Entwicklung solcher Hochleistungsbatterien und wagen in diesem Artikel einen Blick in die Zukunft.
Electricity is a mainstay of today’s energy supply and is gaining in importance as it can be easily channeled into several ways of utilization. Electrical energy storage can buffer fluctuating energy supply and use. It is clear that energy storage is also of vital importance for mobile applications from laptops to electric vehicles and an enormous demand for batteries with high storage capacity and power density is predicted. Nanostructuring of materials and the synthesis of nanocomposites are powerful ways to meet the requirements of future storage devices for electrical energy. The Nano Energy Technology Center (NETZ) under the direction of the Center for Nanointegration (CeNIDE) located at the University Duisburg-Essen addresses the challenging task to improve the properties of today’s batteries with a focus on lithium-ion batteries. New nanocomposites and nanostructured materials are being developed, synthesized and tested in electrochemical half-cells and batteries with respect to improving storage capacity and long-term stability. Research at NETZ also covers questions concerning the availability of (raw) materials and sustainability. Examples of materials under development, where the raw materials are abundant and non-toxic, are new silicon/carbon nanocomposites for a multifold increase of the anode capacity and highly nanostructured lithium-iron phosphate for batteries with high power density. The research and development activities in Duisburg are not only of academic interest; the apparatus required for the synthesis of new materials has been scaled up to pilot-plant scale at the Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology (IUTA), which provides the background to support industrial partners with sufficient materials for testing of processing routes and the integration of nanomaterials into innovative products.