Ceramic Scaffolds in a Vacuum Suction Handle for Intraoperative Stromal Cell Enrichment
During total joint replacement, high concentrations of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are released at the implantation site. They can be found in cell-tissue composites (CTC) that are regularly removed by surgical suction. A surgical vacuum suction handle was filled with bone substitute granules, acting as a filter allowing us to harvest CTC. The purpose of this study was to investigate the osteopromotive potential of CTC trapped in the bone substitute filter material during surgical suction. In the course of 10 elective total hip and knee replacement surgeries, β-tricalcium-phosphate (TCP) and cancellous allograft (Allo) were enriched with CTC by vacuum suction. Mononuclear cells (MNC) were isolated from the CTC and investigated towards cell proliferation and colony forming unit (CFU) formation. Furthermore, MSC surface markers, trilineage differentiation potential and the presence of defined cytokines were examined. Comparable amounts of MNC and CFUs were detected in both CTCs and characterized as MSC‱ of MNC with 9.8 ± 10.7‱ for the TCP and 12.8 ± 10.2‱ for the Allo (p = 0.550). CTCs in both filter materials contain cytokines for stimulation of cell proliferation and differentiation (EGF, PDGF-AA, angiogenin, osteopontin). CTC trapped in synthetic (TCP) and natural (Allo) bone substitute filters during surgical suction in the course of a joint replacement procedure include relevant numbers of MSCs and cytokines qualified for bone regeneration.