Analysis of the interaction of Spray G and in-cylinder flow in two optical engines for late gasoline direct injection
An investigation of the interaction between the in-cylinder flow and the spray topology in two spray-guided direct injection optical engines is reported. The bulk flow field in the combustion chamber is characterized using particle image velocimetry. Geometrical parameters such as the axial penetration and the spray angle of the liquid spray are measured using Mie scatter imaging and/or diffuse back-illumination. The measured parameters are compared with data from a constant volume chamber available in the literature. For a late injection strategy, the so-called ECN Spray G standard condition, the mean values of the spray penetration do not seem to be significantly perturbed by the in-cylinder flow motion until the plumes approach the piston surface. However, spray probability maps reveal that cycle-to-cycle fluctuations of the spatial distribution of the liquid spray are affected by the magnitude of the in-cylinder flow. Particle image velocimetry during injection shows that the flow field in the vicinity of the spray plumes is heavily influenced by air entrainment, and that an upward flow in-between spray plumes develops. Consistent with previous research that demonstrated the importance of the latter flow structure for the prevention of spray collapse, it is found that increased in-cylinder flow magnitudes due to increased intake valve lifts or engine speeds enhance the spray-shape stability. Compared with cases without injection, the influence of the spray on the in-cylinder flow field is still noticeable approximately 2.5 ms after the start of injection.