No association between two polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter gene and combined type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Several independent studies have reported association between serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) polymorphisms and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Five studies found evidence for association between the long-allele of a 44-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and ADHD. Another two studies corroborated this finding while a further six studies did not find such an association. For a second polymorphism within the gene, a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) within intron 2, one study demonstrated that the 12/12 genotype was significantly less frequent in ADHD cases compared to controls, while a second study found that the 12-allele was preferentially transmitted to offspring affected with ADHD. To provide further clarification of the reported associations, we investigated the association of these two markers with ADHD in a sample of 1,020 families with 1,166 combined type ADHD cases for the International Multi-Centre ADHD Genetics project, using the Transmission Disequilibrium Test. Given the large body of work supporting the association of the promoter polymorphism and mood disorders, we further analyzed the group of subjects with ADHD plus mood disorder separately. No association was found between either of the two markers and ADHD in our large multisite study or with depression within the sample of ADHD cases.