Tumor Suppressor Role of INPP4B in Chemoresistant Retinoblastoma
The chemotherapy of retinoblastoma (RB), a malignant ocular childhood disease, is often limited by the development of resistance against commonly used drugs. We identified inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B) as a differentially regulated gene in etoposide-resistant RB cell lines, potentially involved in the development of RB resistances. INPP4B is controversially discussed as a tumor suppressor and an oncogenic driver in various cancers, but its role in retinoblastoma in general and chemoresistant RB in particular is yet unknown. In the study presented, we investigated the expression of INPP4B in RB cell lines and patients and analyzed the effect of INPP4B overexpression on etoposide resistant RB cell growth in vitro and in vivo. INPP4B mRNA levels were significantly downregulated in RB cells lines compared to the healthy human retina, with even lower expression levels in etoposide-resistant compared to the sensitive cell lines. Besides, a significant increase in INPP4B expression was observed in chemotherapy-treated RB tumor patient samples compared to untreated tumors. INPP4B overexpression in etoposide-resistant RB cells resulted in a significant reduction in cell viability with reduced growth, proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and in ovo tumor formation. Caspase-3/7-mediated apoptosis was concomitantly increased, suggesting a tumor suppressive role of INPP4B in chemoresistant RB cells. No changes in AKT signaling were discernible, but p-SGK3 levels increased following INPP4B overexpression, indicating a potential regulation of SGK3 signaling in etoposide-resistant RB cells. RNAseq analysis of INPP4B overexpressing, etoposide-resistant RB cell lines revealed differentially regulated genes involved in cancer progression, mirroring observed in vitro and in vivo effects of INPP4B overexpression and strengthening INPP4B’s importance for cell growth control and tumorigenicity.