Fungal Gut Microbiome in Myasthenia Gravis : A Sub-Analysis of the MYBIOM Study

An altered gut microbiota is a possible contributing pathogenic factor in myasthenia gravis (MG), an autoimmune neuromuscular disease. However, the significance of the fungal microbiome is an understudied and neglected part of the intestinal microbiome in MG. We performed a sub-analysis of the MYBIOM study including faecal samples from patients with MG (n = 41), non-inflammatory neurological disorder (NIND, n = 18), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP, n = 6) and healthy volunteers (n = 12) by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2). Fungal reads were obtained in 51 out of 77 samples. No differences were found in alpha-diversity indices computed between the MG, NIND, CIDP and HV groups, indicating an unaltered fungal diversity and structure. Overall, four mould species (Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Mycosphaerella tassiana, Cladosporium ramonetellum and Alternaria betae-kenyensis) and five yeast species (Candida. albicans, Candida. sake, Candida. dubliniensis, Pichia deserticola and Kregervanrija delftensis) were identified. Besides one MG patient with abundant Ca. albicans, no prominent dysbiosis in the MG group of the mycobiome was found. Not all fungal sequences within all groups were successfully assigned, so further sub-analysis was withdrawn, limiting robust conclusions.


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