Quantification of human behavior levels by extending Rasmussen's SRK model and the effects of time pressure and training on the levels switching

Human factor-related accidents account for an increasing portion of the total accidents through the advancing level of system automation. Human reliability becomes the key issue in human-machine systems especially for safety-relevant tasks and operations. Rasmussen's SRK (skill-rule-knowledge) model is well known in the field of human factors. Likewise, it is well known that skill-based behaviors have the highest human reliability, while knowledge-based behaviors are associated with the lowest reliability scores. Although numerous studies exist on human error probability (HEP), correspondingly typically attributed directly or indirectly to these three levels of behavior, a coherent, consistent representation, especially using data sources, has not been available. In this contribution, the quantification of human behavior levels with Rasmussen's SRK model is given based on three databases for the first time. Effects of time pressure and training on human reliability switching are also analyzed based on related publications. To determine the HEP of these three levels, three databases, technique for human error rate prediction (THERP), Savannah river site human reliability analysis (SRS-HRA) and nuclear action reliability assessment (NARA), from human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are used. The procedure contains identifying the tasks including the operator involved and the assumptions the analysts made and classifying the tasks into suitable cognitive behavior mode (CBM). In this case, the relationship between SRK levels and HEP is mapped. The effects of the two in automation context very relevant performance shaping factors (PSFs), time pressure and training/knowledge degradation, on human behavior levels switching are analyzed and the explanations of the SRK switching are presented. In this case, a more general structure is established to illustrate the dynamic behavior of levels switching with six directions under different conditions. From the results we conclude that skill, rule, and knowledge behavior levels are continuous in terms of HEP and therefore allow a new inside into this key aspect of human factor quantification. Based on this analysis the consequences of daily automation in the context of autonomous transport systems in combination with human qualification and reliability degrading are from this specific and in the current automation discussion very intensively discussed. The presented discussion linking SRK levels and HEP gives a new perspective on the foreseeable consequences of further automation in application areas with increasing automation of everyday tasks (like using a highly automated vehicle).


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