Determination of Takeover Time Budget Based on Analysis of Driver Behavior

An automated driving system notifies a fallback-ready human driver to resume driving when critical operational and functional limits have been or are about to be exceeded. The point between notification and critical limit is the time budget. Previous studies indicate that interdependencies exist between takeover variables and the time budget leading to performance variations and sometimes accidents. It is known that drivers may delay or respond inadequately depending on the time budget. This contribution focuses on utilizing these interdependencies to evaluate the suitability of the time budget for specific scenarios. A 7 s time budget, eight scenarios, and three secondary tasks were studied in a driving simulator with 70 participants aged between 19 Yrs and 41 Yrs. The results indicate that drivers prioritize takeover effort in decreasing order of relative speed, traffic agents, and junctions. Furthermore, 7 s is suitable at a vehicle speed of 80 Km/h to 130 km/h, maximum two traffic agents and three junctions, and handsfree tasks but too high for lower complexities. Generally, the time budget is a sum of the takeover time and maneuver (e.g., lane change) response time. These results are relevant to safety and adaptive variation of the time budget for successful takeover.


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