Simulation, analysis and control of a self-propelling heat removal system using supercritical CO2 under varying boundary conditions

The supercritical dioxide (sCO21) heat removal system, which is based on a closed Brayton cycle with sCO2 as a working fluid, is an innovative heat removal system for existing and future nuclear power plants. This paper provides the design, layout and control of the system based on assumptions developed in the project sCO2-4-NPP. A self-propelling operational readiness state enables a fast start-up and consumes only 12% of the design thermal power input. The system is analysed over a wide range of ambient and steam-side conditions in ATHLET, using performance maps for the turbomachinery, which were designed recently. The performance analysis suggests that it is a good option to operate the system at the design compressor inlet temperature of 55 °C at any boundary condition. With decreasing thermal power input, the rotational speed of the turbomachinery must be decreased to keep the system self-propelling. Moreover, the turbomachinery design with a higher surge margin is preferred. By controlling the compressor inlet temperature via the air mass flow rate and turbine inlet temperature via the turbomachinery speed, the heat removal system is successfully operated in interaction with a pressurized water reactor.

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