Ecotoxicological effects prior to and after the ozonation of tamoxifen
The endocrine disrupting micropollutant tamoxifen can induce several effects on aquatic organisms. It is introduced into the environment mainly by wastewater treatment plant effluents. To reduce the discharge of micropollutants into surface waters, ozonation can be used as additional wastewater treatment option. For only few transformation products (TPs) formed by ozonation ecotoxicological data are available. To enable an initial estimation of ecotoxicological potentials of the TPs formed after the ozonation of tamoxifen, acute toxicity (immobilization) to Daphnia magna and green algae growth inhibition using Desmodesmus subspicatus were determined for several ozone doses spiked at pH 3 and pH 7. The initial immobilization of D. magna by tamoxifen was not further observed after ozonation. In contrast, the green algae growth inhibition increased due to ozonation of tamoxifen. Overall, five transformation products were observed. For three TPs, positive correlations of green algae growth inhibition and peak area were determined, whereas two TPs do not induce the residual effects. Based on our observations, TP 270 can be assumed as most potent of the formed TPs concerning green algae growth inhibition. Since the effect is not induced by formed N-oxides, green algae growth inhibition could be reduced by sufficient ozone exposure during wastewater treatment.