Soluble Syndecan-1 Levels Are Associated with Survival in Platinum-Treated Bladder Cancer Patients
Cisplatin-containing chemotherapy represents the first-line treatment for patients with locally advanced or metastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Recently, novel therapies have become available for cisplatin-ineligible or -resistant patients. Therefore, prediction of cisplatin response is required to optimize therapy decisions. Syndecan-1 (SDC1) tissue expression and serum concentration may be associated with cisplatin resistance. Thus, pre-treatment serum levels of SDC1 and its expression in chemo-naïve tissues were assessed in 121 muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients who underwent postoperative platinum-based chemotherapy. SDC1 concentrations were evaluated by ELISA in 52 baseline and 90 follow-up serum samples and tissue expressions were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in an independent cohort of 69 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples. Pre-treatment SDC1 serum levels were significantly higher in lymph node metastatic (p = 0.009) and female patients (p = 0.026). SDC1 tissue expression did not correlate with clinicopathological parameters. High pre-treatment SDC1 serum level and the presence of distant metastasis were independent risk factors for overall survival (Hazard ratio (HR): 1.439, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 1.003-2.065, p = 0.048; HR: 2.269, 95%CI: 1.053-4.887, p = 0.036). Our results demonstrate an independent association between high baseline serum SDC1 concentration and poor survival in platinum-treated patients. Analyzing baseline serum SDC1 levels may help to predict platinum-containing chemotherapy and could help to optimize therapeutic decision-making.