Associations between self-reported sleep characteristics and incident mild cognitive impairment : The Heinz Nixdorf Recall Cohort Study
Associations of sleep characteristics with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have been examined in cross-sectional, but rarely in longitudinal studies. Incident MCI and sleep characteristics were assessed in 1,890 participants of the first and second follow-up of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, a population-based cohort study in Germany (age at first follow-up 50-80 years, mean follow-up 5.2 years). MCI was assessed with extensive cognitive tests. Sleep questionnaires including PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were used to assess sleep quality, sleep disturbances, time asleep, and time in bed. Relative risks (RR) of developing MCI when exposed to sleep characteristics were assessed in regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5) (RR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.12-1.82, fully adjusted, reference: PSQI ≤ 5) and difficulties initiating sleep (almost nightly versus never) (RR = 1.40, 0.94-2.08) were associated with incident MCI. For time in bed, the risk of MCI was increased for ≤ 5 hours (RR = 2.86, 1.24─6.60, reference:7 to <8 hours). In this longitudinal study with older participants, MCI risk was increased in persons with poor sleep quality, difficulties initiating sleep, and short time in bed.