Frequency-Coded Chipless RFID Tags : Notch Model, Detection, Angular Orientation, and Coverage Measurements
This paper focuses on the frequency coded chipless Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) wherein the tag’s information bits are physically encoded by the resonators’ notch position which has an effect on the frequency spectrum of the backscattered or retransmitted signal of the tag. In this regard, the notch analytical model is developed to consider the notch position and quality factor. Besides, the radar cross section (RCS) mathematical representation of the tag is introduced to consider the incident wave’s polarization and orientation angles. Hence, the influences of the incident wave’s orientation and polarization mismatches on the detection performance are quantified. After that, the tag measurement errors and limitations are comprehensively explained. Therefore, approaches to measureing RCS- and retransmission-based tags are introduced. Furthermore, the maximum reading range is theoretically calculated and practically verified considering the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Ultra Wideband (UWB) regulations. In all simulations and experiments conducted, a mono-static configuration is considered, in which one antenna is utilized for transmission and reception.
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