Hybrid systems based on ultrafiltration membranes and powdered activated carbon for advanced waste water treatment
Adaptation of membrane-based purification processes and/or combination with other treatment processes has been recently the focus of engineering research also in water reuse. In practice, ultrafiltration (UF) and microfiltration (MF) membranes are no longer a stand-alone process; instead, they become a part of a processing chain that is defined by the treatment objective. For instance, UF / MF membranes could be combined with powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption in order to achieve advanced water purification as required in water reuse, i.e. removal of organic micropollutants (via PAC adsorption) as well as separation of pollutants particles (besides PAC) and bacteria (via membrane filtration). Utilization of synergetic effects of such a hybrid process and scaling up from bench-scale experiments to the technical scale, taking into account the different boundary conditions, are the main objectives of this study.