Cell-Free DNA Variant Sequencing Using CTC-Depleted Blood for Comprehensive Liquid Biopsy Testing in Metastatic Breast Cancer
Liquid biopsy analytes such as cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) exhibit great potential for personalized treatment. Since cfDNA and CTCs are considered to give additive information and blood specimens are limited, isolation of cfDNA and CTC in an “all from one tube” format is desired. We investigated whether cfDNA variant sequencing from CTC-depleted blood (CTC-depl. B; obtained after positive immunomagnetic isolation of CTCs (AdnaTest EMT-2/Stem Cell Select, QIAGEN)) impacts the results compared to cfDNA variant sequencing from matched whole blood (WB). Cell-free DNA was isolated using matched WB and CTC-depl. B from 17 hormone receptor positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative (HR+/HER2−) metastatic breast cancer patients (QIAamp MinElute ccfDNA Kit, QIAGEN). Cell-free DNA libraries were constructed (customized QIAseq Targeted DNA Panel for Illumina, QIAGEN) with integrated unique molecular indices. Sequencing (on the NextSeq 550 platform, Illumina) and data analysis (Ingenuity Variant Analysis) were performed. RNA expression in CTCs was analyzed by multimarker quantitative PCR. Cell-free DNA concentration and size distribution in the matched plasma samples were not significantly different. Seventy percent of all variants were identical in matched WB and CTC-depl. B, but 115/125 variants were exclusively found in WB/CTC-depl. B. The number of detected variants per patient and the number of exclusively detected variants per patient in only one cfDNA source did not differ between the two matched cfDNA sources. Even the characteristics of the exclusively detected cfDNA variants in either WB or CTC-depl. B were comparable. Thus, cfDNA variants from matched WB and CTC-depl. B exhibited no relevant differences, and parallel isolation of cfDNA and CTCs from only 10 mL of blood in an “all from one tube” format was feasible. Matched cfDNA mutational and CTC transcriptional analyses might empower a comprehensive liquid biopsy analysis to enhance the identification of actionable targets for individual therapy strategies.