Increased resistance of gram-negative urinary pathogens after kidney transplantation

Background: Urinary tract infection is the most common complication after kidney transplantation. It can cause severe sepsis and transplant loss. Emergence of drug resistance among gram-negative urinary pathogens is the current challenge for urinary tract infection treatment after kidney transplantation.
Methods: This study analyzes the antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-negative urinary pathogens after kidney transplantation from 2009 to 2012 at the Transplant Outpatient Clinic of the University Hospital Essen, Germany. Kidney transplant patients at the University Hospital Essen receive regular follow up examinations after transplantation. Midstream urines were examined for bacteriuria at each follow up visit.
Results: From 2009 to 2012 15.741 urine samples were obtained from 859 patients. In 2985 (19%) samples bacterial growth was detected. The most frequently detected gram-negative bacteria were E.coli 1109 (37%), Klebsiella spp. 242 (8%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 136 (4.5%). Klebsiella spp. showed a significant increase of resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole by 19% (p = 0.02), ciprofloxacin by 15% (p = 0.01) and ceftazidime by 17% (p = 0.004). E.coli and P. aeruginosa isolates presented no significant differences of antimicrobial susceptibility to the analyzed antibiotics.
Conclusions: Antimicrobial resistance of Klebsiella spp. increased significant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime from 2009 to 2012.


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