Ultra-Wideband Array Antennas
Wireless communication has become an indispensable part of modern life. One of the mostimportant components of wireless communication systems are antennas, termed as "eyes" and "ears" of communication systems. A printed antenna, one of the most commercial antennas, is widely used for civil and military applications, i.e., for communication systems, radar systems, satellite and transportation systems since the printed antenna provides some benefits such as light weight, compact structure and low manufacturing cost. A printed antenna design for a communication technology called Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) is discussed in this dissertation. Ultra-Wide Band communication has undergone intensive investigation in the past decade since the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) released the free license spectral mask operation of the UWB radio over 7.5 GHz bandwidth from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz (UWB frequency range), a technology promising high-rate data transmission over a short range. On the other hand, a UWB communication system requires extremely low radiation power to avoid interferences to other communication systems. As an answer for this challenge, three strategies based on antenna aspects are proposed in the frame of this work. The first strategy is to design a compact and directive single radiator. The printed monopole antenna was selected as the radiator, in particular the printed circular monopole antenna (PCMA), was reinvestigated and modified as a directive PCMA. Secondly, a UWB array antenna employing the directive PCMA element was designed to focus the radiation toward a certain direction. Some matching techniques were combined in the design to achieve impedance matching over the UWB frequency range. The measurement result of the antenna under test showed a focused radiation pattern and the impedance matching better than -10 dB was achieved for the whole frequency band. The concept of frequency invariant beam pattern antenna arrays is applied as the third strategy. The concept, adopted from the broadband sensor’s theory for acoustic purpose, is applied to the microwave frame. Based on this concept, a prototype of the PCMA array fed by a set of low pass filters was realized in planar technology at the first time to achieve frequency invariant beam patterns. The measurement of the fabricated antenna showed that the beamwidth can be kept constant over the whole frequency band.