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Mikropolitische Spiele zwischen Bildungseinrichtungen und Fachabteilungen bei der Gestaltung innovativer Weiterbildungsangebote am Beispiel von E-Learning und Wissensmanagement

Winter, Bärbel

Die vorliegende Arbeit verfolgt das Ziel eine Antwort auf die Frage zu geben, warum betriebliche Innovationen im Handlungsfeld von E-Learning und Wissensmanagement trotz ausgereifter pädagogischer Konzepte oft auf eine geringe Akzeptanz in Unternehmen stoßen und welche Konsequenzen sich daraus für das Bildungsmanagement ergeben. Basis für die Fragestellung stellt die Grundannahme dar, dass die Einführung innovativer Weiterbildungsangebote in Unternehmen, wie E-Learning und Wissensmanagement sie darstellen, als mikropolitisches Spiel von Bildungs- und Fachabteilungen interpretiert werden kann, in dem Macht- und Aushandlungsprozesse eine entscheidende Rolle für den Erfolg oder das Scheitern der neuen Bildungsarrangements einnehmen. Die professionelle Gestaltung innovativer E-Learning und Wissensmanagementlösungen nach pädagogischen Faktoren wird zwar als notwendige Bedingung gesehen, um erfolgreich eine Innovation umsetzen zu können. Die hinreichende Bedingung für die nachhaltige Implementierung neuer Bildungsformen stellt aber das Verstehen und Beeinflussen von Verhaltensweisen der Akteure in mikropolitischen Machtgefügen und Spielweisen dar.
In der Dissertation wird herausgearbeitet welche systemtheoretischen und mikropolitischen Faktoren die Arbeit von Bildungsabteilungen bei der Einführung innovativer betrieblicher Weiterbildungsangebote am Beispiel von E-Learning und Wissensmanagement beeinflussen. Zentrales Ergebnis der Dissertation ist der Befund, dass Bildungsabteilungen primär an sozialen Werten orientiert sind und über hohe Kompetenzen in der Gestaltung sozialer Prozesse verfügen. In stark technisch ausgerichteten Unternehmen wird die Wertorientierung häufig auf die methodisch-didaktische Komponente beschnitten und das Arrangieren sozialer Prozesse auf die Gestaltung bekannter Lernformen beschränkt. Um das ungenutzte Potenzial von Bildungsabteilungen dem Unternehmen sinnvoll zur Verfügung zu stellen, kristallisieren sich folgende Vorgehensweisen heraus.
• Bildungsabteilungen kümmern sich verstärkt um soziale Prozessinnovationen. Hierunter fällt die organisationale Einführung und Gestaltung von E-Learning und Wissensmanagement als soziale Innovation.
• Bildungsabteilungen unterstützten Fachabteilungen bei der Gestaltung und Einführung technischer Innovationen, in dem sie die vernachlässigten sozialen Komponenten integrieren. Die technische Innovation dient in dem Zusammenhang der Legitimation sozialen Wandels.
• Bildungsabteilungen rücken näher an die Wertschöpfungskette von Unternehmen heran. Damit verbunden ist eine Ausweitung des Handlungsfelds um Komponenten der Personalentwicklung und Organisationsentwicklung, die die Position von Bildungsabteilungen in Macht orientierten Unternehmensspielen stärken. Die Werteorientierung von Bildungsabteilungen tritt dabei in den Hintergrund.

The thesis offers an answer to the question why business innovations in the fields of e-learning and knowledge management find only minor acceptance in companies in spite of distinguished pedagogical concepts. It also looks at the consequences for the training management that result from this fact.
The question is based on the hypothesis that the introduction of innovative inservice programmes like e-learning and knowledge management in companies can be understood by the training and business departments as a concrete system of games, in which power as well as negotiation processes have a decisive impact on the success or the failure of new training arrangements. The professional formation of e-learning and knowledge management solutions on the basis of pedagogical principles is seen as a necessary condition for the successful implementation of an innovation. However, the basic condition for the persistent implementation of new training measures is the understanding of, and the influence on, the behaviour patterns of the participants in power structures and concrete systems of games.
The thesis shows which systemic and micro-political aspects take influence on the decisions of training departments during the introduction of innovative inservice programmes in the fields of e-learning and knowledge management. This is done with the help of a multi-layered survey system:
(1) Based on the analysis of studies dealing with systemic theory and micro-policy a differentiated system of categories is developed. The system helps to describe and analyse the relevant influential factors of power and games.
(2) The limitation of the sphere of research (large enterprises) and the subject of research (innovative training solutions) leads to the development of three basic hypotheses which presume that the success of training innovations is an integral part of the formation of social change in enterprises.
(3) The next step is an analysis of the self-appreciation of training departments and of their relationships to business departments. Special attention is paid to the conception of innovative inservice training offerings as the field of action of training departments. With reference to training management an exemplary way is shown, in which training departments can extend their influence in enterprises.
(4) Starting from the system of categories two target-group-related interview guidelines are developed, which are used as a questionnaire for company representatives.
(5) On the basis of twenty interviews with company representatives, conducted by the authoress, data are gathered. These data are used to verify the hypotheses on the one hand, on the other hand to compile further information on the tasks of the training management. A further intention underlying the interviews is the compilation of viewpoints concerning the influence of concrete systems of games on the tasks of training departments in large enterprises.
(6) The compiled data are encoded on the basis of the system of categories with the help of the text analysis system MAXQDA 10. In the context of a sequential content analysis the resultant codings are evaluated in reference to the dynamic interdependence of divergent power interests and micro-political strategies that influences the decisions of the protagonists in alteration processes of inservice training.
(7) The results of the sequential content analysis are subject to an empirical interpretation. Under the headings organizational development and human resource development – the terms comprise viewpoints as well as categories – scenarios are listed that represent micro-political power constellations and concrete systems of games in the decision-taking processes of enterprises.
The results of the sequential content analysis are systematized in the form of a table and offered as a manual to the training management. The table explains the differences and correspondences of theoretical and practical points of view in micro-political contexts of organisational training work. In a detailed way it shows the problems and possibilities of co-operation between training departments and business departments when developing innovative training methods in the context of concrete systems of games. The listing of theoretical viewpoints offers the persons taking decisions in the field of inservice training a reliable means of assessing the risks and prospects of success of the measures taken. Thus it is possible to identify and evaluate the possibilities and limitations of innovative changes.
As the result of the empirical interpretation seven prototypical constellations are developed. They depict the relationship between training departments and business departments in reference to human resource development and organizational development. The prototypes exemplify the advantages and disadvantages of traditional and innovative training policy. They are based on the insight that the success of training programmes is not so much dependant on the quality of pedagogical concepts as on external (micro-) political interests and strategies.
The most important result of the thesis is the insight that the work in training departments is primarily based on social values and that the persons working in training departments are highly competent in the formation of social procedures. In companies with a strong focus on technology value orientation is often reduced to a mere didactic and methodological component and the formation of social procedures is limited to a new arrangement of traditional training methods. The following procedural methods offer possibilities to make the unexploited potentials of training departments available for the companies in a useful way:
• Training departments concentrate strongly on the innovation of social procedures. This includes the organizational introduction and arrangement of e-learning and knowledge management as social innovations.
• Training departments support business departments in the introduction and arrangement of technological innovations by integrating the neglected social components. In this context technological innovation serves as authorization of social change.
• Training departments move closer to the value chain of enterprises. Connected with this step is an extension of activities to human resource development and organizational development, which strengthens the position of training departments in power-oriented enterprise games. As a consequence the value orientation of training departments is diminished.
The theoretical explanations and the empirical survey verify the basic hypotheses. The increase in the power of training departments is an interface function for the implementation of social change in enterprises.
From the results of the study possibilities can be deduced that that will support the development of future training innovations from the micro-political, the systemic and the pedagogical perspective:
• timely analysis of the stakeholders and their interests in innovative e-learning and knowledge management solutions ( micro-political dimension);
• taking into account the implicit and structural conditions on which the social activities of the decision-takers in the training department and in the business departments are based, but which the decision-takers in most cases are not aware of (theoretic-reflexive approach);
• development of innovative e-learning and knowledge management solutions in response to articulated needs in the business departments (customer-oriented activity); • participatory models for the development of solutions in cooperation with experienced personnel from the business departments (e. g. systemic organizational development).

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Zitierform:

Winter, Bärbel: Mikropolitische Spiele zwischen Bildungseinrichtungen und Fachabteilungen bei der Gestaltung innovativer Weiterbildungsangebote am Beispiel von E-Learning und Wissensmanagement. 2012.

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