Review of European assessment methods for rivers and streams using benthic invertebrates, aquatic flora, fish and hydromorphology
The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires the monitoring of surface water and groundwater status. The ecological status is surveyed using assessment methods for biological elements (aquatic flora, benthic invertebrates, fish). European countries are in charge of developing new or modifying existing methods according to the WFD requirements. This study provides an overview of biological and hydromorphological assessment methods for rivers in use or under development in 29 European countries. Information was collected using questionnaires completed by experts involved in limnology research and water quality monitoring. Supplemented by various literature sources the review covers 107 method descriptions. Results are accessible online via the Waterview Database (http://starwp3.eu-star.at). The thesis evaluates the general features of the river assessment methods and discusses the aspects of assessment costs and WFD compliancy.