Charakterisierung und Optimierung elektrooptischer Bauelemente in Standard-Prozessen
The thesis treats the topic of the characterization and optimization of CMOS compatible photo sensor elements (CPSE). To understand the functionality of a CPSE a pro founded basic knowledge is necessary in the fields of the ray-, wave and quantum optics. Therefore all in this context necessary and principal equations are presented at the beginning of this work. In addition belongs in particular the statistic investigation of the absorption and emission processes in the field of the quantum optics, since these processes are the basis to understand the elementary noise sources within a CPSE. After an introduction to the available technological realization each element of the equivalent circuit diagram is analyzed. The optical quantum efficiency is developed intended for arbitrary angles and optical multi-layer sequences. The internal quantum efficiency is determined with a new mathematical approach and offers thereby more possibilities of the interpretation of the results compared to the classical physical approach which usually proceed from approximation solutions. The physical operation limit of a sensor and thus its efficiency is specified by the power of the noise sources. In this work it is analytically proven that the statements of Einstein concerning the kTC noise of an individual RC combination also apply to coupled RC combinations. Thus a highly simplified viewpoint of the CPSE and the Switched Capacitor amplifier is possible. Several optimization strategies to improve the optical quantum efficiency, for example the oxide perforation, are introduced and realized. The electro optical parameters can be usually determined by the measurement of special test-structures. Furthermore in this work new test-structures are developed, manufactured and measured under the aspect of high insensitivity to measurement errors. These results lead to the development of an Isochor diagram which permits all important design parameters. The Isochor diagram contributes thereby considerably to the conceptual design of a high-dynamic camera including image sensor. In particular the demanded application in the automotive field can be considered in detail. The achievement of the required goal parameters is documented by the measurement of the image sensor in the camera.
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