Computerszenarios als Trainingstools : Polytelie und Wissenserwerb
Requirements for the use of computer-based scenarios as training tools are investigated. The first part of the text deals with the validity of computer-based scenarios as representations of real-life situations. Using the scenario "Motivator One", the complex situation of a manager is represented. Several studies argue for a sufficient validity of this scenario. Part two of the text focuses on the topic of polytelie in computer-based scenarios. In complex fields of action, actors develop idiosyncratic representations of goals, according to which they guide their activities. Therefore the use of computer-based scenarios for training-purposes often does not ensure comprehensive learning experiences. In an experimental setting, it is examined how this deficit can be compensated by providing objectives. Sixty students were to lead a virtual company in the computer-based scenario "Motivator One". During a training phase, character and sequence of objectives are varied. The aquisition of knowledge during this training phase and during the following transfer-phase is registered using different process indicators. Sentence verification tasks, teaching-back tasks and self estimations are used as additional knowledge diagnosing procedures. It can be shown that objectives are perceived as helpful. Nevertheless they do not become objectives exclusively guiding the participants actions but are integrated into the individual's structure of objectives. Though area specific knowledge is increased during training phase, objectives do not foster the knowledge acquisition process, which in contrast is affected by interindividually stable behaviour biases. The findings show very cleary that both action and knowledge aquisition process are heavily influenced by current indiosyncratic goals, which derive from individual objectives and prevailing situative conditions. Objectives are only one of several components in this field. Consequences for the use of computer-based scenarios as training tools are discussed.