Integrierte CMOS-Kamerasysteme für die zweidimensionale Bildsensorik
Today the development of industrial CMOS processes with respect to minimum structure size allows the realisation of CMOS image sensors with a spatial resolution comparable to CCD image sensors. While CCD's still provide images of higher quality, CMOS sensors can take advantage of the possibility of monolithic integration of optical sensor devices with analog and digital signal processing as well as high flexibility with respect to sensor readout. CMOS technology allows the realisation of low-cost single-chip camera electronics with very low power consumption and application specific properties. As a basis for future developments of CMOS imaging systems frequently used concepts for optical sensor devices and sensor readout circuits are analysed with respect to noise, dynamic range, linearity and speed. It is shown, how to optimise sensor circuits with respect to these properties. To demonstrate the advantages of CMOS technology compared with CCD technology, two integrated image sensors are presented. The image rs provide a very high input dynamic range and perform on-chip image processing inspired by the funcionality of the human retina.