Cerebellar liponeurocytoma – a rare entity : a case report

Background: Cerebellar liponeurocytoma is a rare tumor of the central nervous system occurring mainly in the posterior fossa, which shows neuronal and variable astrocytic differentiation with foci of lipomatous differentiation. Liponeurocytoma develops in adult patients and is defined in the World Health Organization classification of 2016 as a rare benign grade II tumor.
Case presentation: A 39-year-old Italian man presented to our department suffering from headache and nausea. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right-sided cerebellar lesion showing poor contrast enhancement without an obstructive hydrocephalus. Surgery was indicated and total tumor resection was achieved. He was discharged without any neurological deficits. Histopathological examinations revealed a cerebellar liponeurocytoma. A neurological follow-up examination revealed no neurological deficit directly after surgery and 1 year later. Radiotherapy was recommended at the neurooncological board despite the total removal of the tumor, but our patient refused adjuvant radiotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging of his neurocranium with and without contrast enhancement 48 hours after surgery and 15 months after surgery showed no residual tumor.
Conclusions: Liponeurocytomas are rare benign tumors occurring in the majority of cases in the cerebellum. The therapy of choice is surgery. Postoperative radiotherapy has to be discussed individually, but seems to be sufficient if complete tumor resection is not achieved or in cases of a tumor recurrence.


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